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Research by Proctor Engineering & Others

 

Author(s), Date

Title, Description

 

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  Adrian Hairrell, John Proctor, P.E. (2015) Causes of Misdiagnoses - Refrigerant Pipe
Clamp Temperature Sensor Errors.
Accurately measuring the refrigerant temperatures in an air conditioning system is of great importance in system diagnostics. Having
inconsistent or incorrect temperature readings in the liquid and suction lines of an air conditioning system can lead to misdiagnosis and lower operating efficiencies.
 

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (1999) 1999 SDG&E Upstream HVAC Program & Training Baseline Analysis Report. Proctor Engineering Group was retained by San Diego Gas & Electric to establish a baseline for the residential air conditioner replacement market in SDG&E's service territory. This report details the findings of this investigation, which was designed to establish the status of the existing HVAC infrastructure within SDG&E's service territory.
 

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  Michael Blasnik (1997) A Comprehensive Evaluation of Ohio's Low-Income HWAP: Big Benefits for Clients and Ratepayers. Assessing the benefits and costs of low income weatherization programs is more critical than ever as federal funding for low income energy programs. The Ohio Department of Development Office of Energy Efficiency commissioned Proctor Engineering Group to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the Ohio low income Home Weatherization Assistance Program (HWAP) in 1996.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2009) AC Sizing, Electrical Peak, and Energy Savings. Reducing the power draw of the air conditioners that cause electrical peak cannot be justified by energy savings. It is necessary for both the peak causal effect of air conditioners be understood and the high cost associated with that peak be fully valued.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2005) Air Conditioning, Peak Demand, and Public Goods Funds. Peak electric consumption is the critical feature and weak point of the California electric infrastucture. A replacement bounty on low efficiency air conditioning units (similar to the bounty on old polluting cars) has the highest potential for effective peak reduction of all the DSM programs studied.
 

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  George Peterson, P.E., Rob de Kieffer, John Proctor, P.E., Tom Downey. (1999) An Assessment Of Technical Degradation Factors: Commercial Air Conditioners And Energy Management Systems. This study is the third project to examine the relative technical degradation of demand side management (DSM) measures compared to standard efficiency equipment. This project covers two major DSM measures: commercial direct expansion air conditioners (Comm. DX AC) and energy management systems (EMS).  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Adrian Hairrell (2013) An Innovative Product's Path to Market. This paper studies the path of a new widget through stages of evaluations. The device is an inexpensive AC modification that successively passed through development tests, field evaluations, and laboratory evaluations on its way to implementation.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Rob deKieffer, Tom Downey (1997) Arizona Public Service Indoor Air Quality Study.This study monitored a new residence, examining combustion product sources and their impact on indoor air quality. It provides recommendations based on the information from the monitored home, information from other investigations, and analysis of the physical principles governing ventilation and indoor air quality.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (2001) Assessment of HVAC Installations in Long Island Lighting Power Authority’s Service Territory. Conservation Services Group (CSG) contracted with Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) to analyze data collected by CSG field personnel on air conditioner installations in Long Island Lighting Power Authority’s (LIPA) service territory. This investigation involved field testing the air conditioning units, duct systems, and building shells of a sample of homes with recently installed air conditioning systems.  

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  Michael Blasnik, Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E., George Peterson, P.E. (1996) Assessment of HVAC Installations in in New Homes in APS Service Territory. This investigation has involved field testing the air conditioning units, duct systems, and building shells of a sample of newly built houses; monitoring the performance of these systems; assessing achievable improvements to the systems; and analyzing the potential energy savings and peak demand reductions from such improvements.  

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  M. Blasnik, J. Proctor, T. Downey, J. Sundal, G. Peterson. (1995) Assessment of HVAC Installations in New Homes in Nevada Power Company Service Territory. In residential air conditioning systems, duct leakage, low duct insulation levels, and insufficient air flow across the indoor coil can result in significantly  reduced efficiency. This project investigates oppertunities for enhancing the performance of AC systems and recommebds a package of moderate cost improvements leading to lower energy use and demand and greater occupant comfort.  

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  Michael Blasnik, John Proctor, Tom Downey, Jim Sundal, George Peterson (1995) Assessment of HVAC Installations in New Homes in Southern California Edison's Service Territory. In 1994, Proctor Engineering Group investigated opportunities for improving air conditioning system performance in new residential construction in Southern California Edison's service territory. The investigation found substantial deficiencies in most of these systems.  

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  John Proctor, Tom Downey (1996) Assessment of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Aerosol-based Duct Sealing Technology. Pacific Gas & Electric and Wisconsin Public Service contracted with Proctor Engineering to demonstrate the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory aerosol-based duct sealing technology. This demonstration involved field testing the aerosol duct sealing technology on a variety of duct systems and housing stock in three geographical locations; assessing achievable improvements to the duct systems, and assessing the labor and materials requirements of the new technology.  

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  Michael Blasnik (1990) Attic Insulation Performance, Air Leakage, and Ventilation: Measured Results in Flat Roof Rowhouses. The initial results of a detailed study of attic insulation performance in flat roof rowhouses are presented. A mathematical model of atpc heat and moisture transfer which includes an air leakage model was formulated. Simple and inexpensive techniques were devised to measure ceiling and roof airtightness and short term air exchange rates for the attic spaces.  

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  Michael Blasnik (1989) Attrition Bias in Fuel Savings Evaluations of Low-Income Energy Conservation Programs. Common fuel savings evaluation methodologies require more consumption data than are available for many participants in low-income weatherization programs. These data requirements often lead to sample attrition rates greater than 50%.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Zinoviy Katsnelson, PhD, Brad Wilson (1995) Bigger is Not Better: Sizing Air Conditioners Properly. Customers depend on the expertise of contractors in selecting an air conditioner. Yet contractors generally size air conditioners at least a half-ton larger than necessary and often oversize by a ton or more. This article explains how to choose the best size of air conditioner for your home.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Tom Downey (1994) Blower Door Guided Weatherization Test Project. The primary purpose of the comprehensive literature search was to help define and clarify the primary research questions and to summarize the results of preious Blower Door Guided Weatherization studies.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Tom Downey (2001) Building America AC Installation Using Checkme!. The primary conclusion of the study is that the computer expert system in combination with training as well as builder and contractor support can change the outcomes of efficiency and capacity critical to customer satisfaction.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (2004) CheckMe! In Southern California Edison Company’s
(SCE) Territory
. The CheckMe system saves energy and reduces peak load by addressing the problems of leaky duct systems, and air conditioners which are either incorrectly charged, and/or operating with low airflow. These problems are widespread. CheckMe is a one of a kind combination of in-field technician training, computer diagnostics, and immediate test verification and feedback.
 

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  Rob deKieffer (1995) Combustion Safety Checks: How Not to Kill Your Clients. Heating contractors, inspectors, and energy auditors all have different approaches to inspecting combustion appliances. Combustion problems come in various sizes and shapes, and individual tests may not by themselves prove if the house is actually safe.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Rob deKieffer, Mary O’Drain, PG&E, Amalia Klinger, PG&E. (1999) Commercial High Efficiency Air Conditioners : Savings Persistence. Proctor Engineering Group established a time series estimate for condenser and evaporator coil fouling rates for commercial air conditioning units. This was derived from available research. Laboratory testing was used to modify the estimated fouling rates and establish a profile for coil fouling. Both high efficiency and standard efficiency coils were tested in a controlled laboratory environment and subjected to continuous fouling. The efficiency of the air conditioner was monitored at various intervals to document the effects of coil fouling on efficiency.
 

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  Abram Conant, Mark Moder, Joe Pira, John Proctor, P.E., Mike Gebbie (2004) Comprehensive Diagnostic and Improvement Tools. Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings.
 

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  Michael Blasnik, Scott Pigg (1993) Dealing with Outliers in Impact Evaluations Based on Billing Data. The purpose of this paper is to discuss, in a general way, the identification and treatment of unusual customer billing data. The goal of this process is to improve the precision with which we can measure program impacts without producing biased estimates of program savings.
 

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  John Proctor, Tom Downey, Curtis Boecker, Zinoviy Katsnelson, George Peterson, Dennis O'Neal (1996) Design and Construction of a Prototype High Efficiency Air Conditioner. In this study, one of the reduced peak units was assembled from “off the shelf” components. The prototype unit was tested in the laboratory under hot dry and hot moist peak conditions. The prototype unit met the goal, showing a reduced peak watt draw equivalent to the simulation. Diversified local peak reduction was estimated at 550 watts.
 

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  John Proctor, Michael Blasnik, Bruce Davis, Tom Downey, Mark P. Modera, Gary Nelson, John J. Tooley Jr. (1993) Diagnosing Ducts: Finding the Energy Culprits. This article is an effort to bring together the ideas of several innovators who have invented methods of diagnosing duct leakage. It focuses primarily on production technology- diagnostic tools that can be used in programs designed to seal tens to thousands of systems per year.
 

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  John Proctor, Tom Downey (1997) Direct Assistance Program Audit Pilot. In early 1996, Southern California Gas Company (SCG) committed to a study of audit based weatherization for their Direct Assistance Program (DAP). The goal of the project was to test an advanced methodology that targets customers based on billing data, screens for effective measures by phone, and installs the appropriate measures in an efficient and effective manner.
 

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  George Peterson, P.E., John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Effects of Occupant Control, System Parameters, and Program Measures on Residential Air Conditioner Peak Loads. Load, occupant control, and AC characteristics of each group of ACs are discussed. The effect of load changes and AC efficiency changes on diversified peak are discussed for each group. Examples from field monitoring and aggregate proportions are presented.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., Rick Chitwood, Bruce Wilcox, P.E. (2011) Efficiency Characteristics and Opportunities for New California Homes (ECO). This project surveyed selected energy efficiency measures in 80 single‐family and multifamily homes built under the 2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Buildings. The project developed a baseline data set to support more accurate life cycle cost and energy savings calculations for new and existing efficiency measures. The goal of the project was to reduce enduse energy consumption and peak electrical demand in California by improving the standards.
 

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  Scott Pigg (2013) Electricity Use by New Furnaces. Field tests and monitoring of 31 new Wisconsin furnaces showed that multi-stage furnaces with electronically commutated blower motors (ECMs) use significantly less electricity than conventional new condensing furnaces, especially when operated in year-round continuous-fan mode. The data suggest that a typical Wisconsin home will save about 465 kWh of electricity per year for heating and cooling operation, with the median ECM furnace using about half the electricity per therm for heating compared to the median non-ECM furnace.
 

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E., Michael Blasnik (1997) Energy Partners Version 2 Design Plan. In 1994, The Louiseville Gas and Electric Collaborative designed a pilot Energy Partners Program. Over the following three years the pilot program provided service to approximately 1100 qualified houses.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., Chris Buntine, Bob Knight (2008) Energy Performance of Hot, Dry, Optimized Air Conditioning Systems. Detailed test data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine the appropriate configuration of baseline air conditioners which served two purposes. This information provided data to populate a simulation model for comparing various potential design changes to achieve high efficiency at high temperatures and low humidity. It also provided the initial base of comparison for the performance and economics of the resulting air conditioners.
 

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  Jeff Hammarlund, John Proctor, George Kast, Tony Ward (1992) Enhancing the Performance of HVAC and Distribution Systems- Residential New Construction. This paper describes the results of a study to test whether this approach might be effective as part of a program to improve the efficiency of residential new construction.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1992) Estimating Peak Reduction from Submetered Data. Proctor Engineering Group investigated the assumptions and results of six analytical models applied to the Appliance Doctor data set: day-matching, a constrained regression model, a temperature-bin statistical model, hottest-days statistical aggregation, an hourly curve-fitting model, and a simplified regression model. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the models in estimating peak reduction from submeter data.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2004) Evaluation of Program Standards and Enforcement in Three Duct Sealing Programs. The purpose of this evaluation was to provide guidance to utilities and other entities contemplating duct-sealing programs for peak reduction and energy savings. The research questions included: How do program specifications and enforcement effect the amount of duct sealing accomplished in a program as well as the energy savings attributable to that level of duct sealing.
 

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (2001) Evaluation of the 2000 SDG&E Residential HVAC Training Program. Proctor Engineering Group was retained by San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) to deliver training services for residential contractors delivering duct testing and sealing services under the Residential Contractor Program (RCP).  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Carolyn Bouchard, Ruben Hernandez, Tom Downey, Gina Royall (2002) Evaluation of the 2001 SDG&E Residential Single Family RCP Program Performance Indicators. In previous years evaluations addressed whether the contractors and technicians had "taken in" and acted on the information presented in the training sessions that relate to the "house as a system". This evaluation included an indicator concerning whether the customer was becoming more aware of the house as a system and the interactions between energy related systems in their homes.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Alan Vick, Frank Jablonski (1991) Evaluations of a "Super Tune-Up" Pilot Program for Forced Air Furnaces in Small Commercial Buildings. A utility in southern Wisconsin contracted with Building Resources Management Corporation to conduct a furnace efficiency improvement pilot program for light commercial businesses.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1997) Field Measurements of New Residential Air Conditioners in Phoenix, AZ. This investigation studied air-conditioning systems installed in newly constructed homes in Phoenix, Arizona. It involved measuring the airflow and charge of the air-conditioning units as well as the leakage of the ducts and building shell in a sample of 28 systems.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Ronald K. Pernick (1992) Getting it Right the Second Time: Measured Savings and Peak Reduction from Duct and Appliance Repairs. This paper reports on potential energy and peak savings in residential air conditioners, heat pumps and gas forced air furnaces. In four different pilot projects, the state of the space conditioning systems of over one thousand homes was documented. Duct leakage, air flow through the appliance and refrigerant charge on compressor systems were measured before and after repairs were made.  

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  Virginia Jenkins (1991) Heat Pump Study: Tricks of the Trade that Can Pump up Efficiency. Heat pumps can be highly efficient devices for heating or cooling indoor air. Yet all too often, poor service can result in costly operation. A study in California shows how the right stallation, maintenance, and troubleshooting techniques for the whole system can make the heat pump a valuable part of a home.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Danny Parker (2000) Hidden Power Drains: Residential Heating and Cooling Fan Power Demand. This paper compiles power draw, airflow, and static pressure measurements of residential air handlers taken during nine separate field tests of space conditioning systems in Arizona, California, Florida, Nevada, and Canada. The field tests show that air handler power draws exceed the standard assumptions and that the interactions between airflow and cooling capacity combine to degrade overall system efficiency. The findings support conclusions from previous research in Canada that called for a systems approach to improving air handler efficiency.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2012) High EER at 46°C: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Air Conditioner Project. There was an urgent need for a practical study to raise the values of the efficiency of residential air conditioners in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study includes an economic and environmental evaluation of achievable energy savings. The original impetus for this study was the prevailing efficiency of air conditioners in the Kingdom.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Peggy Albright (1996) If Bigger is Not Better, What is?. In this followup to the original "Bigger is Not Better" article, Proctor Engineering Group offers ways to improve comfort, reduce noise, and increase efficiency when installing home air conditioners.  

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  Michael Blasnik (1997) Impact Evaluation of Louisville Gas & Electric Company's Energy Partners Program. Energy Partners is a weatherization program designed to reduce the energy consumption of Louisville Gas and Electric Company's low income and payment-troubled customers. The program began in 1994 with a target of treating 1500 high use households over the life of a three year pilot effort.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Rob de Kieffer (1997) Impact Evaluation of the SIGECO Residential Weatherization Pilot Program. From 1994 through 1996, SIGECO implemented a comprehensive energy conservation program pilot program. The program implementation was completed on both all-electric, and combined gas and electric service customers. This report is an evaluation of that program.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2012) Indoor Air Quality Application: Residential AC Filters. Field research in California residences has found that the trend for
homeowners to replace lower arrestance filters with higher arrestance filters results in lower airflows, which means lower efficiencies of the furnaces, heat pumps, and air conditioners.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., Tom Downey, Abram Conant, Dave Wright (2003) Innovative Peak Load Reduction Program CheckMe!® Commercial and Residential AC Tune-Up Project. In homes and small commercial buildings, the primary cause of electrical peak is central air conditioning. The predominance of older existing air conditioners (not new ones) and their contribution to peak make ensuring highest efficiency operation a prominent priority.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Investigation Of Coil Failures - A Whole Systems Approach. In early 1998 the Ground Source Heat Pump Consortium requested that Proctor Engineering Group investigate a cluster of indoor coil failures on Geothermal Heat Pumps in one subdivision. The climate in that area has high winter humidity and moderate temperatures which provides high potential for corrosion when contaminants are present.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Zinoviy Katsnelson,
George Peterson, P.E.,
Ann Edminster (1994)
Investigation Of Peak Electric Load Impacts
of High SEER Residential HVAC Units.
The objective of this study was to collect data on and analyze the performance of presently
manufactured air conditioners operating at high ambient temperatures. The design parameters that affect power draw under these conditions were investigated.
 

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Investigation Of The AC2 Air Conditioner. Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) contracted with Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) to field test residential air conditioners with evaporatively cooled condensers. The units tested are AC2 units manufactured by Refrigeration Technology Incorporated. Five sites were selected as representative of conditions in PG&E's service territory.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1989) Low Cost Boiler Efficiency Improvements. In this paper, boiler efficiency work in 46 households is studied. Most of the work was done as part of the Colorado Office of Energy Conservation Weatherization Program funded by LIEAP.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1984) Low Cost Furnace Efficiency Improvements. In this paper, furnace efficiency work on over 400 low income households is studied. Funded by LIEAP these modifications are described in detail and comparedto other furnace and weatherization options.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Bobbie Foster (1989) Low Cost Furnace Efficiency Improvements: 10,000 Furnaces Later. A low cost heating system efficiency improvement system was pioneered in the summer of 1982. That program showed a 12% heating savings. The results of that worked showed promise, but left unanswered questions.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Minimum Leakage Low Cost Duct Connections: Small Business Technology Transfer Program. This project developed a prototype Professionally Engineered Duct System that will virtually eliminate air leakage and that can be applied in new and replacement installations at the same labor cost as current designs.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Monitored In-Situ Performance of Residential Air-Conditioning Systems. This study found that the most widely accepted sensible heat gain calculation, applied without "safety" factors, over-estimated the sensible heat gain for these homes by approximately 50%.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Chris Neme (1999) National Energy Savings Potential from Addressing Residential HVAC Installation Problems. The purpose of this paper is to summarize what is known about key installation problems and,
based on studies that have already been conducted, quantify the potential benefits of addressing these problems.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., George Peterson, P.E. (1998) Negative Technical Degradation Factors Supplement to Persistence Studies. In this supplemental report, the four negative technical degradation factors from the first two studies in the Statewide Measure Performance Studies are estimated.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E., Michael Blasnik (1995) Nevada Power Company New Construction HVAC Program Implementation Plan. This implementation plan is based on a study performed for Nevada Power Company (NPC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nevada State Energy Office (NSEO) and on a series of HV AC pilot studies performed for Pacific Gas & Electric (the Appliance Doctor™ projects) conducted by Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) over the course of several years.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (1997) New Construction Baseline Survey. Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G) contracted with Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) to assess the current practices of new residential construction in PSE&G's service territory. The objective of the project was to quantify and document the energy related baseline conditions of current construction practices in an effort to support PSE&G's DSM program for residential new construction.  

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  Tom Downey (1998) Ohio Department of Development Office of Energy Efficiency Home Weatherization Assistance Program Field Site Investigation. In August 1995 the OEE issued an RFP for evaluation services. The goal of the evaluation was to gain the knowledge necessary to guide the OEE in making improvements to the program. The OEE selected PEG to provide an impact evaluation of the 1994/95 HWAP. A comprehensive impact evaluation was designed. The evaluation included extensive data collection and conditioning, a pre/post billing analysis, and a field site investigation.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Performance of Reduced Peak kW Air Conditioners at High Temperatures and Typical Field Conditions. A gas and electric utility company sponsored research to prove that a reduced peak kW residential air conditioner can be built with readily available off-the-shelf components.  

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  George Peterson, P.E., Rob de Kieffer, John Proctor, P.E., Tom Downey (1999) Persistence #3A: An assessment of Technical Degradation Factors: Commercial Air Conditioners and Energy Management Systems. This is the third project to examine the relative technial degradation of demand side management measures compared to standard efficiency equipment.
 

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  Michael Blasnik (1997) Persistence of Savings: An Assessment of Technical Degradation. This study focused on 13 key measures identified by major California electric and gas utilities as providing the bulk of expected DSM program benefits. The measures ranged from residential air conditioners to commercial lighting, drives, motors, and cooking appliances.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., Amy Polak (1992) PG&E Appliance Doctor: Implications for Residential Air Conditioning System Installation Practices. In 1989, Proctor Engineering Group began working with PG&E to investigate the potential energy savings and peak reduction available by making repairs to existing residential air conditioners and gas forced air furnaces. During the course of several studies, a number of problems emerged, many of which were clearly present at the time of installation.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1990) PG&E Appliance Doctor Pilot Project. Reducing the power draw of the air conditioners that cause electrical peak cannot be justified by energy savings. It is necessary for both the peak causal effect of air conditioners be understood and the high cost associated with that peak be fully valued.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., Richard M. Jacobson (1992) PG&E Appliance Doctor Pre-Production Test. The Appliance Doctor Production System (ADPS) is a complete residential air conditioning repair process capable of achieving significant kWh savings. This savings can be obtained by repairing existing electric cooling systems. Repairs focus on reducing duct leakage, correcting low air flow, and insuring proper refrigerant charge.
 

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  John Proctor, Brad Davids, Frank Jablonski, George Peterson (1991) PG&E Heat Pump Efficiency and Weatherization Pilot Project. This project was initiated to address the problem of a high level of complaints from homeowners with heat pumps in PG&E's Drum Division (near Aburn, California). There were two major components of the project. These were to 1) identify the major problems with existing residential heat pump installations; and 2) design a system to correct those problems.
 

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  John Proctor, Tom Downey (1992) PG&E Model Energy Communities Program: Air Flow & Duct Leakage Comparative Study. The Pacific Gas & Electric Model Energy Communities Program commissioned Proctor Engineering Group to complete the Air Flow & Duct leakage Comparative Study to evaluate the existing technologies available for measuring air flow and cut leakage of residential air conditioning systems.
 

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  John Proctor, Ronald Pernick, Robert Kinert, Daniel Engel (1992) PG&E Model Energy Communities Program: Offsetting Localized T&D Expenditures with Targeted DSM. This paper discusses the implementation challenges and preliminary findings regarding the largest segment of the MEC program- the residential retrofit direct installation component. Over a period of three years this aspect of the program will attempt to work on up to 5,000 existing air conditioned homes in the target area.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., Gautaum Dutt, Ph.D., Michael Blasnik, Andrew Goett, Greg Frank (1994) PG&E Refrigerator Metering Part One: Energy Consumption Comparison. PG&E undertook Part One of this study to assess the accuracy of the engineering calculations used to estimate the savings from its refrigerator rebate programs. The primary objective was to determine whether the electricity consumption estimates shown on Federally mandated refrigerator labels1 accurately reflect consumption of refrigerators installed in customers’ homes.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E., Tom Downey (1992) PG&E Refrigerator Rebate Evaluation 1992 Field Monitoring Report. PG&E undertook this study to assess the accuracy of the engineering calculations used to estimate the savings from its refrigerator rebate programs.
 

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  John Proctor, Michael Blasnik, Zinoviy Katnelson, Gautam Dutt, Andrew Goett (1994) PG&E Refrigerator Part II. In the residential sector, energy efficient refrigerators offer one of the most effective opportunities for reducing electricity demand and delaying the construction of new power plants and/or transmission and distribution facilities. In 1990, 1991, and 1992, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) offered rebates for refrigerators that were more efficient than the (1990) Federal standards, as reported on the label.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1992) PG&E Residential Refrigerator Field Metering Project. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether the electricity consumption estimates shown on federally mandated refrigerator labels accurately reflect consumption of refrigerators installed in customers' homes. In particular, PG&E wanted to study whether these labels are accurate for estimating the difference in electricity consumption between refrigerators of different efficiencies.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1990) PG&E Residential AC Rebate Analysis: Preliminary Data. This preliminary analysis provides an initial look at the customers who participated in the 1990 high efficiency air conditioner rebate program. This analysis is not normalized to standard weather conditions, or corrected for other end uses with summer seasonal use patterns.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1990) PG&E Residential Summer Use Analysis. This analysis provides a profile of PG&E customers that are potential participants in various rebate programs. This analysis is not normalized to standard weather conditions. It does not estimate the effects of seasonal variations in non-AC end uses.  

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  Nance Matson, Craig Wray, Ian Walker, Max Sherman (2002) Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes. Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (1994) Procedure For HVAC System, Testing, Repair, And Quality Improvement. The enclosed forms are extracts of comprehensive program protocols that integrate an entire set of testing procedures with repair and post testing procedures. This comprehensive program assesses the true condition and needs of individual housing stock. It is designed to balance accuracy with production adaptability  

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  Michael Blasnik, Tom Len (1988) Quick Savings Estimate with GSTEAM: The GRASP Short Term Energy Analysis Method. GRASP ran GSTEAM using a database program which utilized pre-treatment PRISM parameters and post-treatment weather data and meter readings. The resulting estimates of savings were compared to PRISM estimates.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Report on NATE test of April 10, 1998. The objective of this study was to assess the current NATE Certification Test for the inclusion of factors affecting energy efficiency and the effectiveness of the current test in that regard.  

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  Energy Design Update (1986) Research Shows Increased Building Tightness With Cellulose Insulation. A 1979 study performed by Seton, Johnson, and Odell for the Oregon Department of Energy found the measured air leakage of homes insulated with cellulose fiber insulation to be 15 to 20% less than the air leakage of homes insulated with other insulation materials.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2012) Residential AC Filters. Field research in California residences has found that the trend for homeowners to replace lower arrestance filters with higher arrestance filters results in lower airflows, which means lower efficiencies of the furnaces, heat pumps, and air conditioners. Therefore, homeowners need a way to select an air filter with high arrestance that ensures it will not significantly reduce the efficiency of the air conditioner.
 

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (1999) Residential Central Air Conditioner Service Program Final Report. The primary conclusion of the study is that the computer expert system in combination with training, education, and contractor support can result in a sustainable transformation of the air conditioner service market. This study showed that the keystone to the interaction between the service technician and the consumer is trust.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., ZInoviy Katsnelson, P.E., PhD (1995) Residential Cooling Load Calculation Methods Analysis Pt I. Field studies have shown that most air conditioning equipment is substantially oversized compared to Manual J calculations. Because of the efficiency penalty of oversized air conditioners, PG&E commissioned a study by Proctor Engineering Group to compare common load calculations and sizing methodologies to Manual J calculated loads.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Zinoviy Katsnelson, P.E., PhD (1996) Residential Cooling Load Calculation Methods Analysis Pt II. In this study, air conditioning equipment selection methodologies were compared based on how they actually sized units to the expected indoor design conditions. A method of predicting indoor conditions specific to each piece of equipment was developed. Existing quipment selection methodologies can oversize units on houses in hot dry climates by 50% or more.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1999) Residential New Construction AC Installation Using CheckMe!. Traditional approaches to transforming the installation market include education, training, and marketing. Experience has shown that these three items alone have not transformed the way residential air conditioners perform immediately after installation. The Residential New Construction AC CheckMe! project was designed to address this problem from a market transformation perspective.  

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  Michael Blasnik, Margaret Fels, Roger Wright, Miriam Goldberg (1993) Roll of Billing Analysis in DSM Evaluation. DSM evaluation presents new challenges, in terms of an increasing demand for savings estimates at the end-use level and a growing concern about self-selection bias and free-ridership issuse. Given these challenges, the desirability of measuring whole-building energy savings in addition to end-use savings becomes a key issue that warrants consideration by utility planners.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Bill Gavelis, Bill Miller (1994) Savings and Showers: It's All in the Head. How much energy do low-flow showerheads actually save? To answer this question, Proctor Engineering Group and PG&E metered 243 showerheads as part of a larger evaluation of PG&E's low-flow showerhead rebate program.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E., Michael Blasnik (1995) SCE Coachella Valley Duct and HVAC Retrofit Efficiency Improvement Pilot Project. Southern California Edison (SCE) contracted with Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) to assess the potential energy savings and peak demand reductions achievable from a duct and air conditioner efficiency improvement program targeted to houses in the Coachella Valley.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2010) Sizing Air Conditioners. It is "common knowledge" that downsizing air conditioners makes them more efficient and reduces peak. If that common knowledge is true, and if the improvements are sufficiently large, then it appears obvious that downsizing should be investigated for every new air conditioner installed. Changes in the design of air conditioners, along with new research, call the traditional beliefs into question.  

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  John Proctor (2005) Smart and Cool: The Art of Air Conditioning. John Proctor discusses some of the biggest concerns about HVAC systems for contractors and home owners in this article in Home Energy Magazine's 2005 Special Edition.  

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  John Proctor (1993) Southern California Blower Door Breakpoint Study Target Sample Selection Part I. The primary purpose of this study is to determine where (which houses or apartments) blower door guided weatherization would be cost effective.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Zinoviy Katsnelson, George Peterson, P.E. (1994) Southern California Blower Door Breakpoint Study Target Sample Selection Part II. This report provides a profile of the portion of Southern California Edison's residential customer base that is on Low Income Rate Assistance. The analyses determine that portion of electric bill that increases in the summer and winter months, termed Seasonal Energy Cost, which is dominated by air conditioning in the summer and space heating in the winter.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1996) Statewide Measure Performance Study: An Assessment of Relative Technical Degradation Rates. This is a project, sponsored by the CADMAC subcommittee on persistence, which examined the relative technical degradation of thirteen major DSM measures compared to the standard efficiency equipment which they replace.  

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  George Peterson, P.E., John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Statewide Measure Performance Study #2: An Assessment of Relative Technical Degradation Rates. This study was the second project, sponsored by the CADMAC subcommittee on persistence, to examine the relative technical degradation of demand side management measures compared to standard efficiency equipment.  

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  Bo Shen, James Braun, Eckhard Groll (2004) Steady and Cyclic Performance Testing of Packaged R-410A Units. This project focused on investigating the steady and cyclic performances of two R-410A unitary systems over a range of indoor air flow rates, refrigerant charge levels, outdoor temperatures and indoor humidities  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E. (1999) Summary Report of Persistence Studies: Assessments of Technical Degradation Factors. The Persistence Studies are part of a multi-faceted approach to estimating the persistence of energysavings from demand side management (DSM) programs in California. These studies were performed under contract to the California DSM Measurement Advisory Committee(CADMAC), Persistence Subcommittee. The Persistence Studies focused on one aspect of the persistence of savings — technical degradation.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Rob de Keiffer (1988) Sun Power House Nurse Program. This paper is the result of our experience applying the set of procedures and criteria we have called "House Nursing" to over 1500 houses.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Joe Pira (2005) System Optimization of Residential Ventilation, Space Conditioning and Thermal Distribution. This project focused on the discovery, documentation, analysis, and ranking of optimization concepts for residential space conditioning, ventilation, and distribution systems. The structure of the project was an iterative loop of discovery from all available sources. Each concept was analyzed for energy savings, peak reduction, and cost.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., George Peterson, P.E. (1993) Targeted DSM to Delay T&D Expenditures at the Paradise Substation. This study focused on the most important end use contributors to the Paradise peak demand. Five end uses (residential central air conditioning, residential evaporative coolers, residential refrigerators, small commercial air conditioners, and residential freezers) constitute 72% of the local area peak. Residential central air conditioning alone accounts for over 40% of local area peak.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E., Bruce Harley (1997) Task 4 Memorandum: Field Evaluation of Early Problem Sites. The Ground Source Heat Pump Consortium has commissioned a study of customer complaints within the first year after heat pump installation. The fourth task in this study was an on-site evaluation of problem systems. The site visits have been completed and the results are outlined in this document, and detailed in the Appendices.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1991) The Development of a Field Furnace Test: A More Accurate Prediction of Seasonal Efficiency. Forced Air Signature Testing, or FAST, is a recently refined furnace efficiency test procedure with important implications for demand side management and weatherization.  

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  Joel Bain, Dennis O'Neal, Michael Davis, Angel Rodriguez (1995) The Effect of Hardware Configuration on the Performance of Residential Air Conditioning Systems at High Outdoor Ambient Temperatures. A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air conditioning units in psychrometric rooms at Texas A&M University.  

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  Gautam Dutt, Lester Shen, Gary Nelson, Bonnie Esposito, Jim Fitzgerald, Lydia Gill, Bob Hockinson, Ned Hoffmann, Jessica Shaten (1990) The M200 Enhanced Low Income Weatherization Demonstration Project. The objective of the M200 Enhanced Low-Income Weatherization Demonstration Project was to refine and transfer enhanced weatherization procedures from pilot projects into an approach that could be implemented on a production basis.  

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  Michael Blasnik (1995) The Need for Statistical Analysis and Reporting Requirements: Some Suggestions for Regression Models. This paper describes some threats to the reliability of DSM impact evaluations and provides examples which indicate the potential magnitude of their impact on results, particularly focusing on SAE-type regression models. Reporting and analysis requirements are proposed which may help in identifying and assessing these potential problems.  

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  Robert H. Socolow (1977) The Twin Rivers Program on Energy Conservation in Housing: Highlights and Conclusions. Key results and conclusions of a five-year field study of residential energy use are reviewed. Our multidisciplinary research is being undertaken in a set of nominally identical townhouses in Twin Rivers, New Jersey, a recently built community of standard construction with gas space heating, electric central air conditioning, and a full set of appliances.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Transforming Routine Air Conditioner Maintenance Practices to Improve Equipment Efficiency and Performance (1). This pilot project, funded by the California Board for Energy Efficiency, sought to correct inadequate air conditioner service and installation procedures and to transform the market so that contractors and homeowners would want to use the improved technique.  

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  John Proctor, P.E., Tom Downey (1998) Transforming Routine Air Conditioner Maintenance Practices to Improve Equipment Efficiency and Performance (2). This pilot project, funded by the California Board for Energy Efficiency, sought to correct inadequate air conditioner service and installation procedures and to transform the market so that contractors and homeowners would want to use the improved technique.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (2006) Two-Stage High Efficiency Air Conditioners: Laboratory Ratings vs. Residential Installation Performance. This project monitored four high SEER air conditioners with dual-stage compressors, TXV metering devices, and high efficiency air handlers with ECM fan motors. One system with a single-stage compressor was also monitored. Data included capacity, power consumption, EER, indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity. The data were analyzed to assess the relationship between laboratory testing and real world performance.  

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  Hugh Henderson, P.E., Don Shirey, Richard Raustad (2003) Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Ait-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions. This paper presents initial laboratory and field results that characterize the part- load dehumidification performance of various cooling systems. The lab and field measurements compare well to theoretical algorithms that have been developed to predict this part-load phenomenon.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1992) United Illuminating Company "Cool Cash Credit" Program Review. In September 1992, United Illuminating Company commissioned Proctor Engineering Group to perform a review of their "Cool Cash Credit" program in light of recent field research on AC tune ups. The objectives of this review are a tuned impact estimate and information to improve program implementation and optimize DSM resource acquisition.  

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  John Proctor, P.E. (1998) Verification Test of ASHRAE Standard 152P. A verification test of proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P, Standard Method of Test for Estimating the Efficiencies of Residential Therm Distribution Systems, was performed by modifying an air-conditioner duct system to achieve measured, but variable, duct leakage.  

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  Tom Downey, John Proctor, P.E (2002) What Can 13,000 Air Conditioners Tell Us? Performance data on more than 13,000 air conditioners on residential and commercial buildings in California have been gathered over the last two years. These measurements were collected via a computer expert system used by HVAC field technicians during routine installation, repair, and maintenance visits.  

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  John Proctor, P.E (2011) Zoning Ducted Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Furnaces: Summary of a Case Study prepared for the California Statewide Utility Codes & Standards Program Zoning has the capability of diverting more of the HVAC capacity to the area with the higher load. Another common example is a home with a significant area of west-facing and east-facing windows. In the summer,  

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  Trane / American Standard (2003) ACAA's Manual J Calculations: Comments by Residential Products Division of Trane I American Standard. While the Manual J 8th edition may be procedurally acceptable, the quantitative results are not consistent with established operating systems and accepted load calculation
practices.
 

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  John Proctor, P.E.,
(2016)
The Next New Thing -- Is it really that good?   Variable Speed systems are causing quite a stir. Some of these units sport rated SEERs over 30, more than twice the Federal minimum standard are generating excitement. The Central Valley Research Home (CVRH) project provides in-situ monitoring comparisons of three different brands of M-splits to more conventional systems.  

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